Recently, Associate Professor Yong-Chun Liu of the Department of Physics and others have found the hybrid skin-topological effect induced by gain and loss and the parity-time phase transition between skin-topological modes.

Non-Hermitian can define non-Hermitian systems as open systems. There are many novel properties in non-Hermitian systems, one of which is the non-Hermitian skin effect. To this end, all eigenstates of the topological system (including multiple regions and edge conditions) are localized to one of the system boundaries, and the standard boundary connections are separated. In particular, there are two ways to identify non-Hermitian systems: one using non-Hermitian integration and the other using profit and loss.

In the case of non-Hermiticity, non-Hermiticity arises from a non-Hermitian nature of the interaction between different lattice areas. The energy exchange between the lattice areas is asymmetric, so there is a net flow of energy on one side, and all the power is ultimately collected at the boundary. Therefore, non-restorative systems show an effect on the skin. In the case of gain loss, non-Hermiticity from gain and loss in each lattice area is the equivalent of adding the estimated power of the site to each lattice site. This type of non-Hermitian system does not always lead to skin reactions. In practical methods, uncomplicated integration is often difficult to achieve, but the dispersal is widespread, and the spread of slow dispersion equals gains and losses. Therefore, it is essential to study the effect of the skin on non-Hermitian weight loss programs.

They found a mixed skin-topological effect on two-dimensional systems created by gain and loss. This type of skin effect is selective, i.e., multiple regions and peripheral regions have different behaviors. Most cases are unaffected by the impact of the skin and are always extended, while the perimeter regions reflect the skin effect and are continuously localized at the corners. This mixed skin and topological effect phenomenon reflect the unique features of non-Hermitian topological systems, which do not have Hermitian or non-nontopological analogs.

As a direct example, they look at the Hermann non-Hermitian model for profit and loss. The topological edge regions are obtained in the Haldane model by presenting site strength and local magnetic fluctuations. It is one of two essential models to see the effect of anomalous quantum Hall on condensed matter physics. They found that when limited gains and losses were introduced at neighboring sites in the Haldane model, the topological edge systems would show the skin effect and be localized in the corners. At the same time, the quantitative methods would not be affected. Therefore, it produces a hybrid skin-topological effect.

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Alice is the Chief Editor with relevant experience of three years, Alice has founded Galaxy Reporters. She has a keen interest in the field of science. She is the pillar behind the in-depth coverages of Science news. She has written several papers and high-level documentation.

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